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Conclusions and perspective
Accumulating evidence has shown that reduced waters are health beneficial and they suppress oxidative stress-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, arteriosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and the side effects of hemodialysis. The mechanisms of action of reduced water for scavenging ROS are considered to be complicated. ERW contains hydrogen molecules and mineral nanoparticles. Hydrogen molecules and active hydrogen may be new redox regulation factors that can induce the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes. Hydrogen molecules may be converted to active hydrogen by catalyst action of metal nanoparticles to exhibit more potent reducibility. Mineral nanoparticles themselves are new types of multi-functional antioxidants. Mineral hydride nanoparticles, which are H-donors as well as organic antioxidants like ascorbic acid, are also candidates of active agents in reduced waters. NRW may have one or some of the active agents described above. Further investigation on activation methods of water by electricity, magnetic fields or light are likely to contribute to the development of energy-rich waters, which will be beneficial for human health. Reduced water may suppress harmful effects of environmental pollution on the embryo in pregnant women by purifying amniotic fluid and blood. Reduced water might also contribute to the food industry by improving the taste, texture and preservation of foods. In industries, the usage of ERW is expected as washing water to prevent the rust of semiconductors. In the field of environmental remediation, reduced water will prevent the rotting of river and lake water, because the proliferation of bacteria or organisms causing the rotting will be suppressed in a reduced circumstance. Further research on water itself may ultimately reveal the secret of the origin of life.
We are grateful to Mr. Shinkatsu Morisawa, Nihon Trim Co. Ltd. and Mr. Yoshitoki Ishii, Hita Tenryosui Co. Ltd. for their technical and financial support for our reduced water research. Our research on anti-diabetic effects of reduced water by ERW was partly supported by Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) of Japan (No. 11876073). The authors are thankful to Dr. Munenori Kawamura, Kyowa Medical Clinic, and Dr. Zbigniew Gadek, Nordenau, Germany, for their clinical collaboration. The authors also express their sincere thanks to all staff, research fellows and graduate students who performed the research on reduced water in the laboratory of Cellular Regulation Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University.